In Web development some code you write is for the server and some is for the browser.


The client is the computer the user is using.  More accurately for Web development it is the Web browser.  JavaScript is the main client-side scripting language for the Web. JavaScript is interpreted by the browser. The process with client-side scripting is (this is important):

  1. the user requests a Web page from the server
  2. the server finds the page in it's storage and sends it to the user over the Internet
  3. the browser reads through the HTML and any CSS displaying it for the user
  4. when the browser comes across script tags it:
    1. interprets the text using it's built-in JavaScript interpreter
    2. runs the code and does what it was told to do

So client-side scripting is used to make Web pages change after they arrive at the browser.  As the code only runs in the browser it cannot do anything to the server or to any other computer.  It is useful for making pages a bit more interesting and user-friendly. It can also provide useful gadgets such as calculators, clocks etc. and for games and animations.

Client-side scripts rely on the user's computer. If that computer is slow they may run slowly. They may not run at all if the browser does not understand the scripting language. As they have to run on the user's system the code which makes up the script is there in the HTML for the user to look at (and copy or change if they want to) so there is no security.


The order of execution of code is similar for server-side scripting but the code is executed earlier int he process:

  1. the user requests the Web page from the server
  2. the server sees from the file extension (.php for us but it could be other server-side languages such as .asp or .pl) and it realises there may be some code to run
  3. it looks through the HTML and CSS code and when it sees a <?php ?> tag it knows there is some PHP to run so it:
    1. interprets the script
    2. runs it (probably outputting new HTML and CSS into the file)
  4. the page in its final form is sent to the user including the HTML and CSS generated by PHP

Note that the PHP code is never sent to the browser.  It has been run on the server and only the results (HTML and CSS) go to the user.  This means the user cannot see or copy the PHP code.  It also means that PHP can do things on the server but cannot do things once the page has left the server.  PHP cannot affect the user's computer.

Server-side scripting tends to be used for logging in and allowing users to have individual accounts or for providing data from databases. It allows a level of privacy, personalisation and provision of information that is very powerful. E-commerce, MMORPGs and social networking sites all rely heavily on server-side scripting.

PHP and are two of the main technologies for server-side scripting.  There are others.

Using them together

Server-side scripting will create the page.  It can change the page depending on many things including the user logged in, the contents of a database or just time and date.

Client-side scripting allows the page to change after it first appears in the browser.

Together they can provide a page unique to a user and then allow that user to interact with the page.


Later you will learn about AJAX.  It doesn't actually exist but is a special way of using JavaScript and PHP together.  It allows JavaScript to talk to the server:

  1. JavaScript asks the browser to get a new page
  2. the browser sends an HTTP request to the server
  3. the server reads the page and runs any PHP in it
  4. the end result is sent to the browser but is captured by the JavaScript rather than being shown in the page
  5. JavaScript can then use that data to change the page

The example you have probably seen most often is when you type into the Google search field.  It sends what you have typed to the server and the server tries to complete the words for you.  It sends the words it thinks might be right to JavaScript and JavaScript shows the words as a drop down list for you to pick from.  Facebook chat would be another example of client-side and server-side working together.  Multiplayer browser games are another.